Non-Primate Monocytes - CD14, CD16 - Ziegler-Heitbrock


CCR2 monocytes repair cerebrovascular damage caused by chronic social defeat stress.


Immune surveillance of the brain plays an important role in health and disease. Peripheral leukocytes patrol blood-brain barrier interfaces, and after injury, monocytes cross the cerebrovasculature and follow a pattern of pro- and anti-inflammatory activity leading to tissue repair. We have shown that chronic social defeat (CSD) causes scattered vasculature disruptions. Here, we assessed CCR2+ monocyte trafficking to the vascular injury sites in Ccr2wt/rfp reporter mice both during CSD and one week following CSD cessation. We found that CSD for 14 days induced microhemorrhages where plasma fibrinogen leaked into perivascular spaces, but it did not affect the distribution or density of CCR2rfp+ monocytes in the brain. However, after recovery from CSD, many vascularly adhered CCR2+ cells were detected, and gene expression of the CCR2 chemokine receptor ligands CCL7 and CCL12, but not CCL2, was elevated in endothelial cells. Adhered CCR2+ cells were mostly the non-classical, anti-inflammatory Ly6Clo type, and they phagocytosed fibrinogen in perivascular spaces. In CCR2-deficient Ccr2rfp/rfp mice, fibrinogen levels remained elevated in recovery. Fibrinogen infused intracerebroventricularly induced CCR2+ cells to adhere to the vasculature and phagocytose perivascular fibrinogen in Ccr2wt/rfp but not Ccr2rfp/rfp mice. Depletion of monocytes with clodronate liposomes during CSD recovery prevented fibrinogen clearance and blocked behavioral recovery. We hypothesize that peripheral CCR2+ monocytes are not elevated in the brain on day 14 at the end of CSD and do not contribute to its behavioral effects at that time, but in recovery following cessation of stress, they enter the brain and exert restorative functions mediating vascular repair and normalization of behavior.

Authors: Lehmann ML, Samuels JD, Kigar SL, Poffenberger CN, Lotstein ML, Herkenham M,
Journal: Brain Behav Immun;2022 Mar;101:346-358.. doi:10.1016/j.bbi.2022.01.011
Year: 2022
PubMed: PMID: 35063606 (Go to PubMed)