Non-Primate Monocytes - CD14, CD16 - Ziegler-Heitbrock


Lung type II alveolar epithelial cells collaborate with CCR2+ inflammatory monocytes in host defense against poxvirus infection.


The pulmonary immune system consists of a network of tissue-resident cells as well as immune cells that are recruited to the lungs during infection and/or inflammation. How these immune components function during an acute poxvirus infection is not well understood. Intranasal infection of mice with vaccinia virus causes lethal pneumonia and systemic dissemination. Here we report that vaccinia C7 is a crucial virulence factor that blocks activation of the transcription factor IRF3. We provide evidence that type II alveolar epithelial cells (AECIIs) respond to pulmonary infection of vaccinia virus by inducing IFN-beta and IFN-stimulated genes via the activation of the MDA5 and STING-mediated nucleic acid-sensing pathways and the type I IFN positive feedback loop. This leads to the recruitment and activation of CCR2+ inflammatory monocytes in the infected lungs and subsequent differentiation into Lyve1- interstitial macrophages (Lyve1- IMs), which efficiently engulf viral particles and block viral replication. Our results provide insights into how innate immune sensing of viral infection by lung AECIIs influences the activation and differentiation of CCR2+ inflammatory monocytes to defend against pulmonary poxvirus infection.

Authors: Yang N, Luna JM, Dai P, Wang Y, Rice CM, Deng L,
Journal: Nat Commun;2022Mar29; 13 (1) 1671. doi:10.1038/s41467-022-29308-2
Year: 2022
PubMed: PMID: 35351885 (Go to PubMed)