Non-Primate Monocytes - CD14, CD16 - Ziegler-Heitbrock


Intermediate monocytes induced by IFN-gamma inhibit cancer metastasis by promoting NK cell activation through FOXO1 and interleukin-27.


BACKGROUND: Circulating monocytes are functionally heterogeneous and can be divided into classical (CMo), intermediate (IMo), and non-CMo/patrolling monocyte (PMo) subsets. CMo can differentiate into PMo through IMo. PMos have been shown to inhibit cancer metastasis but the role of IMo is unclear. To date, no strategy has been developed to inhibit cancer metastasis through enhancing PMo/IMo differentiation. METHODS: We screened multiple inflammatory cytokines/chemokines activity of modulating PMo/IMo associated cell markers expression using human monocyte in vitro culture system. We tested our candidate cytokine activity in vivo using multiple mice models. We identified critical key factors and cytokines for our candidate cytokine activity by using gene-knockout mice and neutralization antibodies. RESULTS: We identified IFN-gamma as a candidate inflammatory cytokine in the regulation of human IMo/PMo marker expression. Our in vivo data demonstrated that IMo expansion was induced by short-term (3 days) IFN-gamma treatment through increasing CMo-IMo differentiation and blocking IMo-PMo differentiation. The IMo induced by IFN-gamma (IFN-IMo), but not IFN-gamma activated CMo (IFN-CMo), inhibited cancer metastasis by 90%. Surprizing, the effect of IFN-gamma is greater in PMo deficiency mice, indicating the effect of IFN-IMo is not mediated through further differentiation into PMo. We also found that IFN-IMos induced by short-term IFN-gamma treatment robustly boosted NK cell expansion for threefold and promoted NK differentiation and function through IL-27 and CXCL9. Furthermore, we identified that FOXO1, a key molecule controlling cellular energy metabolism, mediated the effect of IFN-gamma induced IL-27 expression, and that NR4A1, a key molecule controlling PMo differentiation and inhibiting cancer metastasis, inhibited the pro-NK cell and anti-metastasis activity of IFN-IMo by suppressing CXCL9 expression. CONCLUSIONS: We have discovered the antimetastasis and pro-NK cell activity of IFN-IMo, identified FOXO1 as a key molecule for IFN-gamma driven monocyte differentiation and function, and found NR4A1 as an inhibitory molecule for IFN-IMo activity. Our study has not only shown novel mechanisms for a classical antitumor cytokine but also provided potential target for developing superior monocytic cell therapy against cancer metastasis.

Authors: Wang R, Bao W, Pal M, Liu Y, Yazdanbakhsh K, Zhong H,
Journal: J Immunother Cancer; 2022 Jan;10(1):e003539 . doi:10.1136/jitc-2021-003539
Year: 2022
PubMed: PMID: 35091454 (Go to PubMed)