Non-Primate Monocytes - CD14, CD16 - Ziegler-Heitbrock


The porcine dendritic cell family.


Considering the pivotal roles played by dendritic cells (DCs) in both innate and adaptive immune responses, advances in the field of porcine immunology DC biology have recently progressed rapidly. As with the more extensively studied murine and human DCs, porcine DC can be generated from bone marrow haematopoietic cells or monocytes, and have been analysed in various immunological and non-immunological tissues. Both conventional DC (cDC) and plasmacytoid DC (pDC) have been characterized. The function of porcine monocyte-derived DC has not only been characterized in terms of antigen presentation and lymphocyte activation, but also their response to various ligands of pattern recognition receptors. These have been characterized in terms of the induction of DC maturation and pro-inflammatory, Th1-like or Th2-like cytokines secretion. Porcine pDC most effectively sense virus infections and are characterized by their capacity to produce large quantities of IFN-alpha and the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-alpha, IL-6 and IL-12. As such, the DC family as a whole is a powerful ally in the host battle against pathogen attack. Nevertheless, DC in particular tissue environments or under particular stimuli can down-regulate immune response development. This is not only important for preventing over-activation of the immune system and also for ensuring tolerance against self or "friendly" substances including food components, but may also be used as a mechanism of pathogens to evade immune responses.

Authors: Summerfield A, McCullough KC
Journal: Dev. Comp. Immunol.; 2009 Mar; 33(3) 299-309. doi:10.1016/j.dci.2008.05.005
Year: 2009
PubMed: PMID: 18582937 (Go to PubMed)